05 Solar Hybrid Home Plans
04 SOLAR HYBRID HOME PLANS
Living Area: 186.04 m2 | 2,002 sq.ft.
Occupants: 2 Adults, 1 - 2 Children, Pets
Cold Climates, Continental Climates, Humid, Middle Latitude Climates
Solar energy is a clean and abundant energy resource that can be used to supplement many of your energy needs. Solar energy can be utilised as a form of heat, such as solar water heating, and as electricity, such as solar photovoltaics. Solar water heating systems are commonly referred to in the industry as Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) systems.
Homeowners often wonder if there is enough sunlight in northern climates to support solar applications such as water heating. Basically, there is enough solar energy to deliver an average of 2500kWh of energy per year in cold climates, such as that of Canada or Scandinavia. This means that a solar water heater can provide enough solar energy to meet about one half of the water heating energy needs for a family of four. Water heating is one of the most cost-effective uses of solar energy, providing hot water for showers, dishwashers and clothes washers, as well as heating. Consumers can now buy “off-the-shelf” solar water heaters that meet industry-wide standards, providing a clean alternative to gas, electric, oil or propane water heaters.
A solar water heater reduces the amount of fuel one needs to heat water because it captures the sun’s renewable energy. Many solar water heaters use a small solar electric (photovoltaic, PVC) modules to power the pump needed to circulate the heat transfer fluid through the collectors. The use of such a module allows the solar water heater to operate even during a power outage.
What makes this EcoHouse design hybrid, is the sheer fact that both active and passive solar systems were employed, i.e. :
1) Passive Systems:
- Favourable building orientation on site, with the greenhouse facing south, whereby its heat flows into the Eco-House interior simply by opening the sliding doors;
- A compact, double-storied plan, that can be further subdivided into separate temperature zones, and heat storage, a large utility room, and garage in the basement, thus reducing the energy requirement significantly in northern climates;
- A fireplace, used in conjuction with other solar heating solutions, located on an interior wall near the centre of the Eco-House;
- All windows being double-glazed, with the possibilities of beadwall system inclusion;
- Increased wall and roof insulation, in order to reduce heat loss in typical construction; "breathing walls", naturally diffuse air and water between the interior and exterior, thus acting as the "third skin", were employed; they are constructed of concrete form made from mineralised wood chips and portland cement, making walls that are healthy, environmental, durable, easy to construct, and cost effective; roof tiles are earth-friendly, made of recycled materials and feature a Class 4 Impact Resistance and a Class A and Class C Fire Rating;
- Air infiltration losses have been reduced by using air locks at points of entry, whereas the northern roof, pitched at 30°, was designed to retain snow build-up, that acts as insulation during the winter season;
- Water-saving toilet seats and other water-saving sanitary equipment has been used throughout the project;
- All installations between the lower and upper floors run through a vertical service shaft, which is also fully accessible for inspection and maintenance via an access panel;
- The greenhouse is founded on the "greenhouse effect" principle to trap sunrays and build up hot air, that is further transferred to the living room and - using a system of open double storey spaces - further into bedrooms. The greenhouse also serves the purpose of a socialising space, and can be used for growing vegetables, breeding pets, etc;
- Sunscreening is envisaged as an option, provided that your local latitude and climate so require;
- The southern roof has the optimum pitch of 45°, making it ideal for solar heat collection for latitudes from 30 to 60 degrees North;
2) Active Systems:
- Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) System has been used in the form of The Solar Boiler™ state-of-the-art solar water heating appliances;
- Being environment-friendly and very affordable, 8 systems, amounting to 50% of the overall heated area in the EcoHouse were deployed across the southern roof, to supply domestic hot water and the entire quantites of water required to heat the premises; the heat pump used with the system is powered by the sun, and does not pollute;
- Ventilation, Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) and heat recovery from within the EcoHouse has been achieved using the Clean Air Furnace system that uses a domestic water heater as its heat source; the Heat Recovery Ventilator removes stale, contaminated air from inside the Eco-House to the outdoors and at the same time draws fresh, oxygen-laden air from outside, distributing it throughout the homestead; the hot, stale air from the greenhouse and the Eco-House's interior is converted to fresh air, which is then distributed as fresh air and heating through the registers located across the building;
- Water heated by the solar collectors is, in turn, used in the System Wall Heating, providing optimum heat transmission and operativity with lowest possible water heating temperature; having heating within the walls is cost-efficient, helps save heating costs, can be used reversibly during the summer season for cooling, and is completely ecological;
- Central Vacuum System (CVS) has been used to remove 100% of contacted dust, dirt, mites, pollen and other allergens, then carry them to a central canister located away from living areas (in the Utility room) — helping improve indoor air quality.
Experience shows that by combining these passive eco-design planning and construction techniques alone, the effect of reducing the total heating energy requirement by about 40% when compared to standard house construction can be achieved.
In a well-insulated Eco-House by the likes of Solar Hybrid, the sizing of the heating system can be considerably smaller than that required in a conventional house, thus reducing heating equipment costs to offset the cost of increased insulation. It is an organised, well-zoned Eco-House, energy-efficient in its planning and design.
|Ground Floor Plan||m2||sq.ft||First Floor Plan||m2||sq.ft|
||5.38||58||Total First Floor:||49.63||534|
|Total Ground Floor:||80.35||865||Basement Floor Plan||m2||sq.ft.|
|Utility & Storage||21.81||235|
|Total Basement Floor:||56.06||603|
REGISTER OF WORKING DRAWINGS (PLANS)
|Drawing Title||Sheet Size||Sheet Size||Sheet Size||Number of Sheets|
|Vertical Circulation Details (Staircase Details)||A2||1|
|Joinery Details (Doors & Windows)||A2||A0||4|
|Rainwater Treatment Details||A1||1|
|Specifications of Eco-building Materials & Products||A4||Complete Set|
|Materials Quantity List||A3||Complete Set|
|Specifications of HVAC and IAQ (Indoor Air Quality)||A4||Complete Set|
|Roofing Details (comprised in Structural Calculations)||A4||2|
|Floor Construction Plans||A2||2|
|Solar Collectors, HVAC & IAQ Schematics||A2||2|
|Shading Devices Details||A4||1|
|Plumbing Plans & Schematics||A2||3|
|Water Supply and Drainage Details & Schematics||A2||1|
|Rainwater Treatment Details||A1||1|
ECOTECTURAL DESIGN FEATURES
Feature 1: The Greenhouse | Conservatory
A greenhouse (or conservatory) creates a new living or working area - in fact a space that will remove the dividing line between inside and outside, so that each environment is enriched by the awareness of the other. It can extend your home on one or more levels, opening it up to light, sun and the surrounding landscape. Imagine a conservatory design studio, or a greenhouse as poolside lounge! On top of all that come rooflights as atria, combining natural light with a moderating micro-climate.
Thus, much contrary to popular belief, greenhouses do not serve just to provide the heating effect of the "greenhouse" effect and heat up the house interior (which is its primary technical function), but also to enhance one's lifestyle and replenish the soul.
The greenhouse also serves the purpose of space for socialising, which can be used for growing vegetables as the additional or supplementary food supply to homestead.
Feature 2: Rainwater Collection and Treatment
Surface water was easily utilised in this EcoHouse design to reduce domestic water consumption and expenses. Being earth-sheltered, the water tank is protected from extremely low or high temperatures. The falls around the tank are profiled in such a way as to funnel stormwater into the
Collected water is then thoroughly treated for domestic consumption using a 'state-of-the-art' stormwater treatment system, processed by 100% biological means which is 100% safe for domestic use.
Feature 3: Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) System
Solar water heaters provide with several benefits over conventional water heaters. One will reduce your hot water heating costs.
One will also be directly reducing greenhouse gas emissions (carbon dioxide, CO2, released into the atmosphere), thereby contributing to a healthier environment. The energy one can expect to save by switching to a solar water heater depends on several factors such as the size of the collectors and storage tank, appliance efficiency, amount of sunlight in the region and, very importantly – the amount of water in use. A typical solar hot water system will reduce annual energy costs by 40 to 50%. One can expect that a solar water heater will provide with 1500 to 3000 kWh of energy per year, depending on one's hot water usage and regional climate.
Most solar water heaters consist of solar collectors mounted on the roof of the building; a pump for circulating the heat transfer fluid; a heat exchanger for transferring the heat to storage; and one or two storage tanks for storing solar-heated water for periods when there is no sun.
The Thermo Dynamics Solar Boiler, used in our Eco-House designs, was a revolutionary concept in solar domestic water heating systems. It is a solar preheat system using the external Side-Arm heat exchange system pioneered by Thermo Dynamics and the Micro-Flo collector system for unsurpassed heat exchange efficiency.
Feature 4: Reflecting-Insulating Skylights | Windcatches
- Sunlight reflected into the building in the morning, afternoon or the winter season;
- Protection against excessive sunlight.
The windcatches used for natural cross-ventilation are combined with skylights to serve as additional natural light sources. Ideally, these skylights should be oriented to face prevailing winds and natural lighting.
The windcatches are provided with an inner reflecting surface attached to an insulating board. Thus, the former reflects sunlight into the building, while the latter prevents heat loss from the inside to the outside.
Feature 5: HVAC & IAQ
- Warm, stale air from the home is returned to the Air Furnace;
- Outdoor air travels through the fresh air intake and is brought into the integral HRV;
- The fresh and stale air pass through opposite sides of the HRV aluminium heat exchange core;
- Heat from the stale air is transferred to the fresh air;
- Stale air is exhausted outside;
- Hot water is sent from the water heater to the furnace heating coil;
- A PSC type high-efficiency fan blows the tempered fresh air from the HRV into the coil;
- The circulation pump distributes hot water through the coil;
- The circulating hot water heats the air to the desired temperature;
- Warm, fresh air is distributed to registers throughout the Eco-House;
- .The hot water travels through the coil and returns to the water heater for domestic use.
Even if you do not live in an ultra-efficient home, you have probably spent some time recently weather stripping doors and windows, caulking around frames, filling walls and attics with insulation. Yet our homes today are built to keep fresh air out. All in the name of energy-efficiency.
As a result, you may have cut your heating and air conditioning costs. Excellent. But at the same time you have made it more difficult for fresh air to move into your home and for stale air to move out. The indoor air quality has deteriorated, and that makes the home environment uncomfortable and unhealthy.
Our proposed solution for HVAC (Heating, Ventialtion and Air Conditioning) and IAQ (Indoor Air Quality) uses a domestic water heater as its heat source. The efficient system creates a healthier, more comfortable home environment while lowering energy bills. This combination heating system results in higher efficiency ratings than are possible with conventional furnaces i.e. - lower fuel costs for you. It offers a solution to protect the occupants from the pollutants in your eco-home while reducing heating and air conditioning costs and has a built-in Heat Recovery Ventilator (HRV) that replaces stale air with fresh.
Our proposed system brings outdoor air through the built-in HRV, ensuring fresh, healthy heating of your home - all for the cost of a high efficiency furnace. Although your Eco-House will not always require heating, the ventilation component of the HRV works year-round to provide a constant stream of fresh air to every room of your house.
The system operates safely and quietly. Instead of the periodic bursts of hot air distributed by conventional furnaces, a steady stream of warm air is released throughout the house - reducing
drafts, and creating a more even temperature distribution. The atmosphere in your Eco-House will be noticeably improved.
This heating system provides constant ventilation and a steady stream of warm air for the healthiest, most comfortable home environment possible, with efficiency of up to 90%.
The Clean Air Furnace allows for the addition of a plenum-mounted air conditioner. As long as the furnace is controlled by a thermostat with a fan auto/on switch, users can select heating or cooling with ventilation to meet your climate control needs in every season.
The compact Clean Air Furnace uses hot water as its heat source. Water is pumped from your home water heater to the furnace heating coil. A fan with a PSC high-efficiency motor blows the fresh air from the HRV into the heating coil where the circulating water warms the air. Water leaves the heater, travels through the hot water circulation pump, and returns to the water heater. As the water travels through the furnace's heating coil, air is warmed ad sent to registers throughout the house.
The HRV removes stale, contaminated air from inside the Eco-House to the outdoors. At the same time, it draws fresh, oxygen-laden air from outside and distributes it throughout the house. Polluted air is constantly being replaced by an equal quantity of fresh, clean air.
Feature 6: System Wall Heating and Cooling
System Wall Heating and Cooling, is used in our EcoHouse designs, increases the human comfort level considerably. It produces longwaved horizontal infrared radiant heat which provides ultimate comfort, just like sun warmth which is also radiant heat. Reversely, it can be used for cooling during the summer season. Unlike heat from conventional heating systems radiant heat does not travel upwards and dust circulation is avoided, so it provides a healthy room climate. Heating operates with lowest possible water heating temperature, which means it can be provided by the Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) System. It is a large-area low temperature system, and through use of wall storage, provides exceptional energy saving and cold water circulation converts wall heating into wall cooling in summertime.
Feature 7: Central Vacuuming System (CVS)
Recent research conducted has shown that a Central Vacuuming System (CVS) provides relief from major allergy symptoms by as much as 61%! Unlike conventional vacuums that can recirculate dust,
a CVS removes 100% of contacted dirt, dust mites, dander, pollen and other allergens from the living areas in your Eco-Home to relieve the misery caused by allergies.
The Central Vacuum System, employed in our Eco-House designs makes use of tubing installed in the walls of your home to carry dirt, dust and allergens away from living areas to a collection canister in the garage or basement.
To activate the system, you simply need to plug in the lightweight hose into the nearest wall inlet (an average home has three inlets). Then, you attach your choice of cleaning tools and you are ready to go. The flexible nine meter hose lets you move from room to room for fast, easy whole-house cleaning convenience. CVS is quiet, as well, since the power unit is located in the utility room.